5 posts categorized "Italics"



蒂莫西麦卡杜by Timothy McAdoo

Although the title of a journal article or book chapter is not usually italicized,有时标题中的单词可能会倾斜。这些包括书籍或电影标题,作为语言例子的字母或单词,统计学,动物的学名,以及其他在文本中倾斜的项目,per 万博手机官网APA Style guidelines.


Corballis,MC.,& McLaren,R.(1984)。Winding one'sS和Qs: Mental rotation and mirror-image discrimination.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance,10,318—327。https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.10.2.318
赖J.,Fidler,F.,& Cummings,G.(2015)。Subjective间隔:研究人员低估了复制上的值。方法论,8,51—62。https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-2241/a000037

If the title of the work is already italicized,as with a reference for a book,报告,or dissertation or thesis,然后将要斜体化的项目将被反斜体化(也就是说,它在斜体化的标题中是罗马字体)。


Blaylock,B.(2015)。成年:大卫·阿蒙德的青春期叙事基特的荒野Nick Lake的In darkness (Master's thesis).检索自Proquest论文和论文数据库。(UMI号)10000726)
ReichenbergL.(2013)。帝斯曼- 5要领:精明的临床医生标准变化指南.霍博肯NJ: Wiley.



蒂莫西麦卡杜by Timothy McAdoo

当动物的名字是期刊文章标题的一部分时,it is conventional to provide the animal's scientific name (属与种).Genus is always capitalized and species is not.请注意,科学名称也斜体化(参见p.105的APA Publication Manual).

例如,请参阅以下文章APA Journals

《比较心理学杂志》文章:狗(熟悉犬类)是身体定向的原因,但对指点动作的反应不是视觉障碍。 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition: Control of Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

将科学名称列入论文标题的公约不是手册中规定的APA风格指南;万博手机官网however,it isan accepted norm of scientific research.(如果您对是否将科学名称包括在您的论文或手稿中有任何疑问,问问你的老师,advisor,或编辑。

So,如果你引用了一篇文章,其中包含了一个属和一个种,how should the title appear in your reference list?保持动物科学名称的斜体和大写与它们在原始标题中的显示完全一致:

MacLeanE.L.,Krupenye,C.,& Hare,B.(2014)。狗(犬类熟悉度)注意身体的方向,但不要注意对指点动作做出反应时的视觉障碍。比较心理学杂志,128,285—297。http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035742
Tu,H.-W.,汉普顿R.R.(2014)。Control of working memory in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition,40,467—476。http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xan0000030

September 21,2016


David Becker

By David Becker

在为论文或手稿研究主题时,you may come across a few relevantYouTube视频也许是泰德谈话或者两个你想引用的。Being the intrepid explorer of the Internet that you are,you may even brave those videos' comment threads,绝望地寻找隐藏在黑暗中的理性话语的微弱闪光,巨魔出没的深度。或者,如果你是在写关于网络巨魔心理的文章,你可能是故意寻求卑鄙和冒犯性的评论。不管你的理由是什么,you have found a YouTube comment that you would like to cite,but you don't know how.

一些相同的原则citing a blog comment也适用于引用YouTube评论。For instance,如果未列出评注者的真实姓名,请列出评注者的用户名,然后添加“re:”followed by a space before the title of the video.也,as with some blog comments,clicking on a YouTube comment's time stamp will lead to a page with a unique URL that features that comment at the top of the comment thread.在“检索自”中包含此唯一的URLportion of your reference.

YouTube Comments


就像引用博客评论一样,cite the date that the YouTube comment was posted,not the date that the video was uploaded.YouTube comments present a somewhat unique challenge in that they do not display precise publication dates.更确切地说,they indicate how long ago a comment was posted (e.g.,"3 hours ago,"“2周前,”10个月前,“4年前”等等)。如此不精确,引用一天或一个月是没有意义的,as you would do when citing a blog comment,所以只要引用出版年。

The year that the comment was posted is easy to figure out using simple math.However,in the unlikely situation where there might be some ambiguity about what year a comment was posted,你可以包括“CA”for奇卡after the publication date,很像什么时候引用社交媒体来源的大致日期.This should be done as sparingly as possible.

引用YouTube评论和博客评论的另一个区别是标题的格式。博客文章的标题不是斜体字,the title of a video is italicized.However,“R:”技术上不是视频标题的一部分,因此不倾斜。


49metal.(2016).Re:Are you dating a psychopath?[视频文件]。Retrieved fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP5HIjA9hh4&lc=z13bu5ghznaawh0ez23ajz0gnquidx1z004

And here is a sample text 万博手机版登录citation for that comment:

Some do not see the value in these sorts of informal,self-diagnosis measures: "This invitation for lay people to diagnose a rare psychological disorder… is profoundly irresponsible"(49metal,2016).

Keep in mindthe reliability of your source在这个背景下,当你决定引用什么时,你的论文的主题是什么。一个不明身份的YouTube用户的随机评论,比如上面的那个,在一篇结合了专家对某个学术主题的意见的研究论文中,这可能并不合适。However,这种非正式的来源在不同的论文中可能更合适,such as one about how people interact with each other on social media.



蒂莫西麦卡杜by Timothy McAdoo

(Note: Key terms are not the same as keywords,which appear under an abstract.有关关键字的详细信息,查看我以前的帖子.

在创造性写作中,italics are commonly used to emphasize a particular word,simulating the emphasis you would give a word if you read the sentence aloud.你看那个总是,正确的?But theAPA Publication Manual建议使用谨慎的语法,而不是斜体,for emphasis.

However,这个手册(上)105) does recommend using italics for the "introduction of a new,技术,或关键术语或标签,添加“(在一个术语被使用一次之后,do not italicize it)."I give examples of each below.

New or Technical Terms

为了确定您是否有新术语或技术术语,考虑你的听众。A term might be new or technical for one audience and not for another.举例来说,let's look at two different uses of the phrase条件味觉厌恶.



但是,让我们假设你正在写一本关于儿童发展的杂志。因为这些观众有不同的专业知识,你可能认为他们不太熟悉有条件的味觉厌恶的概念。在这种情况下,you might consider the phrase technical and italicize the first case in your paper.

例句: "Of course even much later in life these children may avoid avocados simply because of条件味觉厌恶,把他们联系起来,consciously or unconsciously,带着生病的感觉。”


(注:关键术语与关键字不同,which appear under an abstract.有关关键字的详细信息,查看我以前的帖子

A key term italicized in an 万博手机官网APA Style paper signals to readers that they should pay close attention.This might be because you are defining a word or phrase in a unique manner or simply because the term is key to the understanding of your paper.例如,I might italicize a term that will be used throughout the remainder of a paper about conditioning:

例句: "条件味觉厌恶is a concept not to be overlooked."

这句话后面很可能是概念的定义和例子,but subsequent uses of the term would not be italicized.

APA不维护技术或关键术语列表,这是有意的。Only you,作者,can know,或者合理推测,一个术语对你的读者来说是技术性的还是论文的关键性的。让我们再看一个例子:

Let's say you're writing a paper about the psychological benefits of owning a cat.你可以自然地使用这个词feline很多次。尽管如此,你可能不会把它的第一个用法斜体化,因为,对于大多数观众来说,这是一个熟悉的词。仍然,作为一个细心的作家,if you've used the word many times,it's worth considering why.假设你已经详细讨论了你认为猫的特征与其他家养宠物的相似特征有什么不同。在那种情况下,you might consider the understanding of the wordfeline你论文的关键,你可以将第一个用法斜体化,也许包括一个定义。

如你所知,deciding whether you have key,新的,or technical terms is subjective.Your paper may have none.或者,if you need to delineate multiple important concepts within a paper,你可能有几个。



For these,you should italicize each time the word is used as a label.

例句: "The box labeled空的满了.标签盒空的should remain empty."


Use italics for the first case of a new or technical term,一个关键术语,或者一个标签。Don't italicize the subsequent appearances of new or technical terms or key terms.

March 01,2012


Chelsea blog 2Chelsea Lee

万博手机官网APA Style has special formatting rules for the titles of the sources you use in your paper,比如书名,文章,book chapters,reports,and webpages.可能应用的不同格式是大写(请参见Publication Manual,第4.15节)斜体(见第4.21节)and quotation marks (see section 4.07),and they are used in different combinations for different kinds of sources in different contexts.

你在论文中使用的资料来源标题的格式取决于两个因素:(a)资料来源的独立性(独立与独立)。part of a greater whole) and (b) the location of the title (in the text of the paper vs.in the reference list entry).The table below provides formatting directions and examples:



Reference list






(例如,书,电子书,报告[技术,government,等,论文,thesis,film,视频,电视连续剧,播客,YouTube视频艺术品,地图,music album,未出版的手稿)


Gone With the Wind

斜体字,sentence case



(例如,journal article,书章电子书章报纸文章,magazine article,博客帖子television episode,WebISODE,网页,鸣叫,Facebook update,encyclopedia entry,Wikipedia entry,dictionary entry,歌曲)



不在任何引号内,sentence case

Longitudinal impact of parental and adolescent personality on parenting


如上表所示,the titles of works that stand alone (such as a book or a report) are italicized in both the text and the reference list.In contrast,the titles of works that are part of a greater whole (such as an article,which is part of a journal,or a book chapter,which is part of a book) are not italicized in either place,and only in the text are they put inside quotation marks.If you are having difficulty determining whether something stands alone (such as a webpage that may or may not be part of a greater website),choose not to italicize.


万博手机官网apa样式使用两种大小写来格式化引用标题,上表中还提到了标题和句子。APA's title case refers to a capitalization style in which most words are capitalized,and sentence case refers to a capitalization style in which most words are lowercased.在这两种情况下,proper nouns and certain other types of words are always capitalized.这里更详细标题案例和句子案例实施指南.



Students read stories of visual agnosia in把妻子当成帽子和其他临床故事的男人(Sacks,1985)。

Reference List Entry Examples

In contrast,sentence case is used for titles of references when they appear in reference list entries.在以下示例参考列表条目中,查看在句中大写时书籍和文章标题的外观:

ObasiE.M.,& Leong,f.T.L.(2009).心理痛苦,acculturation,以及美国非洲人的心理健康寻求态度:初步调查。Journal of Counseling Psychology,56,227—238。doi:10.1037/a0014865
麻袋,O.(1985).把妻子当成帽子和其他临床故事的男人.New York,纽约:哈珀和罗。

We hope this helps you understand how to capitalize and format reference titles in 万博手机官网APA Style.

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