5篇文章分类为“释义”

March 03,二千零一十五

When and How to Include Page Numbers in 万博手机官网APA 万博手机版登录Style Citations

Chelsea blog 2by Chelsea Lee

All万博手机官网文本引用中的APA样式万博手机版登录有两部分:作者和日期。Some in-text 万博手机版登录citations also include page numbers (or other location information when page numbers are not available,as with some online materials).这篇文章描述了在不同类型的引文中何时以及如何在APA样式中包含页码,以及在页码不可用时如何包含适当的位置信息来代替页码。万博手机官网万博手机版登录

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直接标价法

直接引用逐字复制另一个作者的单词,并以引号(如果引号少于40个单词)或块引号(如果引号超过40个单词)显示。When you include a direct quotation in a paper,包括作者,日期,以及可以在引文中找到报价单(或其他位置信息)的页码。万博手机版登录

Research has found that "romantic partners maintain both biased and realistic views of a core relationship trait: physical attractiveness"(所罗门和瓦齐尔,2014,P.524)。

Solomon和Vazire(2014)发现,“浪漫的伴侣对一个核心关系特征保持偏见和现实的观点:身体吸引力”(p.524)。

直接引用有很多种方式;see more examples here.

释义

A paraphrase restates someone else's words in a new way.例如,you might put a sentence into your own words,或者你可以总结一下另一位作者或一组作者的发现。When you include a paraphrase in a paper,你只需要在引文中包括作者和日期。万博手机版登录You are encouraged (but not required) to also provide the page number (or other location information) for a paraphrased 万博手机版登录citation when it would help the reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex text (such as when you use only a short part of a book).下面的示例显示了包含页码的释义的引文。万博手机版登录

就像夏洛克·福尔摩斯调查案件一样,心理学家必须在做出推论之前评估所有可用的数据,以免他们在证据不足的基础上得出错误的结论(bram&peebles,2014,聚丙烯。32–33).

Bram and Peebles (2014) advocated for psychologists to evaluate all the available data before making a deduction,just as Sherlock Holmes investigates a case,lest they jump to an erroneous conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence (pp.32–33).

There are many ways to paraphrase material;这里有更多的例子和一些建议.

如何引用没有页码的材料

如果引用的材料没有页码(例如一些电子书) and you need them for an in-text 万博手机版登录citation,请使用以下任何位置信息:

  • 段落编号,if provided;或者,you can count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document;
  • 总标题加上该节中的段落编号;或
  • an abbreviated heading (or the first few words of the heading) in quotation marks,如果标题太难引用,加上该部分的段落编号。

计划退休的人不仅需要钱,他们还需要“储备情感储备”。确保他们得到家人和朋友的充分支持(柏林商会,2014,para.1).

黄连素(2014,para.1)指出计划退休的人不仅需要钱,还需要“储备情感储备”。to ensure they have adequate support from family and friends.

了解更多

For more on quoting and paraphrasing in 万博手机官网APA Style,请看Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(第六版,§6.03–6.09)。

工具书类

Bram,a.D.,& Peebles,M.J(2014)。重要的心理测试:创建有效治疗的路线图.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14340-000

ChamberlinJ(2014,一月)。Retiring minds want to know.心理监测,四十五(1).从中检索http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/01/retiring-minds.aspx

所罗门B.C.和VZAIR,S.(2014)。你是如此美丽。..对我来说:超越偏见,在浪漫关系中达到精确。人格与社会心理学杂志,107,516–528.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036899

十一月04,2014

迷失在翻译中:引用你自己的APA风格的翻译万博手机官网

Dear Style Experts,

我正在为讲英语的听众写一篇英语论文。然而,我也会说法语,and I read an article in French that I want to cite in my paper.I translated a quotation from the article from French into English.如何格式化报价的翻译?Do I use quotation marks around it?Do I have to use the words "my translation"在那里的什么地方?请帮忙。

Yours,

翻译特里

Languages-800

尊敬的特里翻译:

你的难题在这个多语种的世界里很常见。Luckily,the solution is quite simple: If you translated a passage from one language into another it is considered a paraphrase,not a direct quotation.因此,引用你的翻译材料,all you need to do is include the author and date of the material in the in-text 万博手机版登录citation.We recommend (but do not require) that you also include the page number in the 万博手机版登录citation,因为这将有助于任何讲法语的读者找到原文中的译文。你不应该在你翻译的材料周围使用引号,and you do not need to use the words "my translation"或者类似的事情。Here is an example:

原法语段落:
"Les femmes dans des activités masculines adoptaient des stéréotypes masculins"(Doutre,2014,P.332)。
论文中出现的翻译报价:
在男性领域工作的女性采用了男性的刻板印象(Doutre,2014,P.332)。

在参考列表中,提供原版作品的引文。万博手机版登录还应在外文书名后以方括号提供作品书名的英文翻译。不带斜体。

Reference list entry:

DoutreE.(2014)。Mixité de genre et de métiers: Conséquences identitaires et relations de travail [Mixture of gender and trades: Consequences for identity and working relationships].加拿大行为科学杂志/Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement,46,327—336。http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036218

为什么翻译被认为是释义?

You may wonder why your translation is considered a paraphrase rather than a direct quotation.That's because translation is both an art and a science—languages do not have perfect correspondences where every word and phrase matches up with a foreign equivalent,当然,有些案例比其他案例更接近。即使在上面的示例文章中,我也考虑了如何翻译“Les Femmes dans des Activit_s阳性”—一个字接一个字,我可能已经写了“女性在阳性活动中”,但我认为“女性在男性领域工作”更好地传达了实际意义,这与女性从事男性主导的职业有关。

尽管如此,因为我们无法编纂出任何译文的精确性,在翻译的单词周围加引号是不合适的。事实上,在你自己进行翻译的过程中,你把作者的话逐字地写进了你自己的话中,which is the definition of a paraphrase.

Citing a Published Translation

Finally,请注意,引用您所做的翻译与引用其他人所做的已发布的翻译不同。如果你读了一本翻译作品,并且在论文中直接引用了它,你可以在引文周围加上引号,就像其他直接引文一样。万博手机版登录尽管这部作品已被翻译,它存在于一个独特的,可检索形式。同样地,in the reference list you would为作品的翻译版本写一个条目.

我希望这能帮助你引用你自己的APA风格的翻译。万博手机官网

- Chelsea Lee

July 10,2014

APA样式万博手机官网是否使用同上。?

大卫·贝克



By David Becker

Dear 万博手机官网APA Style Experts,

同上问题

When should I use同上。在我的研究论文里?我想连续多次引用同一个来源,but I'm not sure how.请帮助!

- Brann D.

Dear Brann,

同上。中未涉及的几个主题之一出版手册because it isn't used in 万博手机官网APA Style.其他风格document sources with footnotes or endnotes使用同上。指向在前面的注释中引用的来源。万博手机官网APA风格,然而,consistently uses the author–date format to identify an idea's origin.

When repeatedly referring to the same source,并不总是需要在每一个结尾都加上一个附加的引文。万博手机版登录paraphrased sentence,as long as the narrative plainly indicates where the information is coming from.Even a direct quotation may not require a full parenthetical 万博手机版登录citation in this case—you can改变你的引文风格万博手机版登录.If you're not sure whether your paper clearly shows that you're drawing multiple thoughts from one source,问问你的老师,a classmate,或者你学校写作中心的人给它一个快速阅读。任何形式的写作中最有价值的资源之一就是第二双眼睛!

希望这篇文章能回答你的问题,布兰!您也可以翻到出版手册举例说明如何将引文融入叙述和万博手机版登录何时包括出版日期.另外,一定要看看我们以前的一篇文章如何在文本引用中创建万博手机版登录.而且,一如既往,请随意评论这篇文章,leave us a note onTwitter脸谱网,或contact usdirectly about any questions you may have.

四月04,二千零一十三

何时将年份包括在段落中出现多次的引文中万博手机版登录

泰勒

by Tyler Krupa

您可能已经知道,APA样式的引用在带有作者日期系统的文本中引用(例如,万博手机官网史密斯,2012)。But do you know when to include the year of publication when one of your 万博手机版登录citations appears more than once in a paragraph?只要记住以下两条准则,就可以很简单地纠正错误:

1.All附加引文(即万博手机版登录万博手机版登录引文中,作者姓名和出版日期均在括号内)应包括年份,regardless of how often they appear in a paragraph.

2。When the name of the author is part of the narrative and appears括号外,在每一段的第一个引文之后,只要研万博手机版登录究不能与文章中的其他研究相混淆,就不必在随后的非论文引文中包括年份(见第页)。第六版174出版手册

为了帮助说明这些准则,让我们来看几个例子,这些例子正确地显示了何时将年份包括在段落中出现多次的引文中:万博手机版登录

桑色素(1988)描述了两种独立但有联系的流行病。...桑色素将艾滋病毒(病毒)传染病与随后的艾滋病(疾病)传染病区别开来,预见防止病毒传播和控制它引起的疾病的最终会聚。...桑色素also discussed a third epidemic....第三种流行病与病毒本身一样,也是艾滋病病理学的一部分。桑色素,1988).

Socioeconomic status (SES) and chronic diseases rather consistently fall on a gradient,where those of relatively lower SES have poorer health and are more often afflicted by multiple diseases than those above them on the SES ladder(阿德勒和斯图尔特,2010)....Adler and Stewart (2010)提供了一个框架来解释SES影响健康结果的主要途径。...这个模式正在发展中,说明个人,社会的,and structural influences on disease over the lifespan(Adler & Stewart,2010).

我们希望这些例子能澄清这一点的不确定性。还有问题吗?请给我们留言。

March 18,2011

Citing Paraphrased Work in 万博手机官网APA Style

蒂莫西麦卡杜by Timothy McAdoo

As the出版手册notes,citing your sources is imperative: "Whether paraphrasing,quoting an author directly,或者描述一个影响你工作的想法,you must credit the source"(p.170)。

But,we are sometimes asked how a writer can properly and clearly attribute multiple ideas within a paragraph yet maintain a readable and interesting text.

It's a challenge!If you include a 万博手机版登录citation only at the end of the paragraph,读者不会知道你在前几句话中把多少观点归因于被引用的作者。But,including the 万博手机版登录citation at the end of each sentence,一个绝对清晰和正确的方法,can become redundant:

在过去的20年里,音乐类型的异花授粉和融合使孩子们接触到了多种音乐风格(viglione,2010)。技术也使音乐的传播和分享以令人兴奋的新方式成为可能(Viglione,2010)。音乐通过社交媒体网站共享,analyzed and tailored for the individual listener via sites like Pandora,and simply given away by musicians on their websites (Viglione,2010)。因此,未来,儿童很可能会在早期发展出兼收并蓄的音乐品味,并期望在年轻和年轻的时候有不同的音乐风格(Viglione,2010)。


上面的段落清楚地将Viglione(2010)的工作归因于but imagine a 20-page literature review written in this style!Pages 15–16 of the出版手册show an example of how to paraphrase multiple ideas without this redundancy.

Can you rewrite the paragraph above in a way that avoids redundancy but maintains the attribution of all of the ideas?在评论部分提交您的建议!有很多方法可以改进这一段,所以我们不会发布“赢家”,but we will follow up with comments and commendations on the suggested rewrites!

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